Criminal law is that type of law that relates a crime. Most of the criminal laws are established by statute, which means the laws are enacted by legislative. A crime is an act or omission of law commanding it and criminal law varies according to jurisdiction. Criminal law is different from civil law because the penalty of criminal law involves forfeiting of one’s rights and imprisonment. When any person does any such crimes and the responsible authority find this, they are punishable under this law.
The parts of criminal statutes are men’s rea and actus reus.
● Men’s rea is the mental state that the person who commits the crime should possess. Men’s rea is a Latin word for ‘guilty mind’. For eg; if one person commits murder, that particular person must have an intention to do that act.
●Actus reus includes the action taken by the perpetrator. Actus reus is Latin is ‘guilty act’. For e.g in a drug case, to charge the perpetrator with any case of drug dealing, he must have sold it to anyone.
TYPES OF CRIMINAL LAWS:
Criminal law is a body of law established by statute and can be of 2 types:
- FELONY: These are defined by the United States and are punishable by death or imprisonment for more than one year. Felony, within common law countries, is a severe criminal offense. Some of the felony crimes include murder, manslaughter, arson, burglary, battery, tax evasion, aggravated assault, fraud, kidnapping, blackmail, forgery, treason, and other law-breaking.
- MISDEMEANOR: Misdemeanour offenses are considered as a less serious crime punishable less than a felony. They include reckless driving, public intoxication, petty case, simple assault, trespassing, and more. The criminal offenses that are punishable under the law are the following:
- Personal crimes: These are those crimes that personally create harm to others. Example: murder
- Property crime: These are those crimes involving the interference of another one’s property.
- Inchoate crimes: These those crimes which are never completed or assisting to a crime.
- Statutory crimes: These are the crimes prescribed by the statue law. Generally, these crimes include criminal acts relating to alcohol, drugs, traffic, and others.
- Financial crimes: These crimes are also known as “white colour” crimes. As the name indicates they are related to money and some of the financial crimes are, embezzlement, fraud, blackmail, tax evasion, and other crimes.